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Defence Research and Development Organisation and India’s Missile Program

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In this article, we will discuss the Defence Research and Development Organisation & Indian Missile Program at a glance, Classification of  Missile and Important India’s Missile program, which are very important from the exam’s point of view.

DRDO AND INDIAN MISSILE PROGRAM AT A GLANCE

The Defence Research and Development Organisation is an agency of the Government of India, charged with the military’s research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India.

  • DRDO works under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
  • Dr. G. Satheesh Reddy is the incumbent Chairman of DRDO.
  • DRDO was established in 1958 after combining Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organisation (DSO).
  • Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was the brain child of renowned scientist Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. It was intended to attain self-sufficiency in the field of missile technology.
  • The IGMDP formally got the approval of the Indian government on July 26, 1983.
  • After keeping in mind the requirements of various types of missiles by the defense forces, the program recognized the need to develop five missile systems. The missiles developed under IGMDP are:
      1. Short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile – Prithvi
      2. Intermediate-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile – Agni
      3. Short-range low-level surface-to-air missile – Trishul
      4. Medium-range surface-to-air missile – Akash
      5. Third-generation anti-tank missile – Nag
  • After achieving the goal of making India self-reliant in missile technology, DRDO on January 8, 2008, formally announced the successful completion of IGMDP.
CLASSIFICATION OF MISSILES

Missiles are generally classified on the basis of their (a) Type, (b) Launch Mode, (c) Range, (d) Propulsion, (e) Warhead and (f) Guidance Systems

  • Basis of Type
    1. Cruise Missile
      • Subsonic Cruise Missile
      • Supersonic Cruise Missile
      • Hypersonic Cruise Missile
    2. Ballistic Missile
  • Basis of Launch Mode
    1. Surface-to-Surface Missile
    2. Surface-to-Air Missile
    3. Surface(Coast)-to-Sea Missile
    4. Air-to-Air Missile
    5. Air-to-Surface Missile
    6. Sea-to-Sea Missile
    7. Sea-to-Surface(Coast) Missile
    8. Anti-Tank Missile
  • Basis of Range
    1. Short Range Missile
    2. Medium Range Missile
    3. Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile
    4. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
  • Basis of Propulsion
    1. Solid Propulsion
    2. Liquid Propulsion
    3. Hybrid Propulsion
    4. Ramjet
    5. Scramjet
    6. Cryogenic
  • Basis of Warhead
    1. Conventional
    2. Strategic
  • Basis of Guidance Systems
    1. Wire Guidance
    2. Command Guidance
    3. Terrain Comparison Guidance
    4. Inertial Guidance
    5. Beam Rider Guidance
    6. Laser Guidance
    7. RF and GPS Reference
LIST OF INDIA'S MISSILES
AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES
  • Astra
    1. Type: Active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM)Air-to-Air Missiles
    2. Range: 60 – 80 km
  • K-100
    1. Developed by Russia & India
    2. Type: Medium Range air-to-air missile
    3. Range: 300–400 km
  • MICA
    1. Developed by IAF
    2. Type: Air-to-Air Missiles
SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES
  • Akash
    1. Type: Medium-range surface-to-air missile
    2. Range: 30-35km
  • Barak 8
    1. Developed by Israel and India
    2. Type: Long Range surface to air Missile
    3. Range: 100 km
  • Trishul
    1. Type: Short Range surface to air missile
    2. Range: 9km
  • Pradyumna Ballistic Missile Interceptor or Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile interceptor, the surface to air missile
    2. Range: 300 to 2,000 km
DEFENCE MISSILE
  • Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)
    1. Type: Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
    2. Range: Altitude- 80km
  • Advanced Air Defence (AAD)
    1. Type: Endo atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
    2. Range: Altitude- 30km
  • Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV)
    1. Type: Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
    2. Range: Altitude- 120km
CRUISE MISSILES
  • Nirbhay
    1. Type: Subsonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine, aircraft, and land)
    2. Range: 1,000 -1500 km
    3. Speed: Mach 0.8
  • BrahMos
    1. Developed by Russia & India
    2. Type: Fastest Cruise Missile in the world Supersonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine, aircraft and land)
    3. Range: 290 km
    4. Speed: Mach 2.8 to 3 Mach
  • BrahMos II
    1. Type: Hypersonic cruise missile(Ship, submarine, aircraft and land)
    2. Range: 300km
    3. Speed: Mach 7
  • BrahMos-A
    1. Type: Air launched Cruise Missile.
  • Brahmos-M               
    1. Type: Smaller variant of the air-launched BrahMos
    2. Range: 290 km
  • BrahMos-NG               
    1. Type: Mini version based on the existing BrahMos

 

SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILES
  • Agni-I
    1. Type: Medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM)
    2. Range: 700-1250 km
  • Agni-II
    1. Type: Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM)
    2. Range: 2,000–3,000 km
  • Agni-III
    1. Type: Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM)
    2. Range: 3,500 km – 5,000 km
  • Agni-IV
    1. Type: Intermediate-range ballistic missile(IRBM)
    2. Range: 3,000 – 4,000 km
  • Agni-V
    1. Type: Intercontinental ballistic missile(ICBM)
    2. Range: 5000 – 8000Km
  • Agni-VI
    1. Type: Four-stage intercontinental ballistic missile
    2. Range: 8,000 km to 12,000 km
  • Prithvi I
    1. Type: Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical)
    2. Range: 150 km
  • Prithvi II
    1. Type: Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical)
    2. Range: 350 km
  • Prithvi III
    1. Type: Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical)
    2. Range: 350 km to 600 km
  •  Dhanush
    1. Type: Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical)
    2. Range: 350 – 600 km
  •  Prahaar(Pragati)
    1. Type: Short Range Ballistic Missile(Tactical)
    2. Range: 150 km
  •  Shaurya
    1. Type: Hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile Medium-Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM)
    2. Range: 750 to 1,900 km
SUBMARINE LAUNCHED BALLISTIC MISSILES
  • Sagarika (K-15)
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile
    2. Range: 700 – 1900Km
  • K-4
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile
    2. Range: 3,500–5,000 km
  • K-5
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile
    2. Range: 6,000 km
  • Ashwin
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile
    2. Range: 150-200km
ANTI-TANK MISSILE
  • Nag
    1. Type: Anti-Tank Guided Missile
    2. Range: 4km
  • Helina(HELIcopter launched NAg)
    1. Type: Anti-Tank Guided Missile
    2. Range: 7-8km
  • Amogha-1
    1. Type: Anti-Tank Guided Missile
    2. Range: 2.8 km
  • Ashwin Ballistic Missile Interceptor or Advanced Air Defence (AAD)
    1. Type: Ballistic Missile interceptor / anti-aircraft missile
    2. Range: 150 km+

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